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Tuesday, November 21, 2017

Principle #9 - Manure and Litter Management

By Abby Neu
Extension Educator, Poultry
neux0012@umn.edu | (320) 235 - 0726 x 2019
and Hannah Lochner
Extension Livestock Communications Intern

*Please note any templates or resources that can help you, can be found in a Google Drive folder, available to everyone. Bookmark the site: https://z.umn.edu/NPIP for easy access. If a resource is referenced in a post, it is linked directly to the Google Drive.



Manure and litter management provides frequent opportunity for producers to enact biosecure practices. Manure and spent litter create an environment which can host numerous microorganisms including pathogens. Because of this, management of manure and litter is critical to minimizing disease risk. 

Your biosecurity plan needs to explain how your manure and spent litter is removed, stored, and disposed of. All of these things needs to completed in way that limits the spread of disease. Along with manure management comes pest management to minimize attracting pests such as rodents and insects. 

Your plan could include any clean and disinfect procedures used for manure and litter removal. These practices should also include designated and controlled access points for people, equipment, and vehicles moving waste products. Protocol may also cover practices used to restore the Perimeter Buffer Area (PBA) and the Line of Separation (LOS) following removal of manure and litter. Supporting documentation you can use for your audit may include:
  • Manure management practices 
  • Manure/litter handling log sheets
  • Copies of permits
  • Contractor correspondence

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Principle #8 - Mortality Disposal

By Abby Neu
Extension Educator, Poultry
neux0012@umn.edu | (320) 235 - 0726 x 2019
and Hannah Lochner
Extension Livestock Communications Intern

*Please note any templates or resources that can help you, can be found in a Google Drive folder, available to everyone. Bookmark the site: https://z.umn.edu/NPIP for easy access. If a resource is referenced in a post, it is linked directly to the Google Drive.


Another important principle your biosecurity plan needs to address is mortality disposal. How does your farm handle mortality disposal? When writing your mortality plan, include:
  • the frequency of carcass removal 
  • storage and disposal methods 
  • Pest control around mortality and disposal areas
  • Indicate mortality disposal site on aerial map
Overall, you need to address the protocols you have in place for handling mortalities on your farm. Your protocols should describe how you minimize cross-contamination to other farm sites or between barns.

Supporting documentation that is helpful to include in this aspect of your plan can include:
  • Mortality sheets
  • Disposal records
  • Company contracts
  • Best Management Practices audits
  • SOP’s used for mortality handling
Farmers can dispose of carcasses numerous ways including burying, composting, rendering, and incinerating. Burial offers an inexpensive and biosecure method for disposal. However, all burial sites should be designed to prevent groundwater contamination. In the state of Minnesota, producers can compost poultry without a permit. Composting offers an environmentally-friendly, biosecure, and affordable approach to mortality disposal. Rendering allows carcasses to be processed into useful materials. Rendering services are available and used regularly in Minnesota. Incinerating carcasses, while more costly, is an efficient means of disposing carcasses. Incineration also eliminates pests and rodents attracted to poultry carcasses. Incinerators must be approved by the Pollution Control Agency and follow pollution control standards.
No matter which approach your mortality disposal plan follows, include a detailed description in your biosecurity plan and provide supporting documentation for disposal methods.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

Principle #7 - Equipment and Vehicles

By Abby Neu
Extension Educator, Poultry
neux0012@umn.edu | (320) 235 - 0726 x 2019
and Hannah Lochner
Extension Livestock Communications Intern

*Please note any templates or resources that can help you, can be found in a Google Drive folder, available to everyone. Bookmark the site
: https://z.umn.edu/NPIP for easy access. If a resource is referenced in a post, it is linked directly to the Google Drive.



Vehicles and equipment are wonderful tools that can help be more efficient in getting tasks done on the farm. However, they are also very good at transferring pathogens from one location to another.
Contaminated vehicles and equipment have proven to be a contributor to disease occurrence in poultry facilities. Service vehicles including garbage trucks; maintenance vehicles, for example your electrician’s vehicle; and even delivery vehicles can transfer pathogens to your farm.

In addition to vehicles, equipment brought in or used on-site can also harbor pathogens. Tools used by service providers may be contaminated depending on the environments they were used in prior to your farm. Skid-loaders, wheel barrows, and other on-site equipment traveling between barns, sites, or neighbors can also play role in the spread of disease.

Restricting traffic on your site such as only allowing vehicles imperative to farm operations to cross the perimeter buffer area is a good biosecurity practice. Defining vehicle entry access and traffic patterns can further increase your biosecurity program. Disinfecting shared tools and equipment,within reason, can also address disease risk.

Your biosecurity plan needs to include SOPs for cleaning and disinfecting equipment and vehicles that cross the Perimeter Buffer Area. Written instructions, proof of any signage, and proof of training should be included in this SOP. You should also include what kind of supplies you have available for disinfecting equipment and vehicles.

Additionally, vehicle access points and traffic patterns for your farm site(s) need to be defined. These can be added to your aerial map which already define the Perimeter Buffer Area and Line(s) of Separation.

Thursday, November 2, 2017

Principle #6 - Wild Birds, Rodents, and Insects

By Abby Neu 
Extension Educator, Poultry
neux0012@umn.edu | (320) 235 - 0726 x 2019

and Hannah Lochner
Extension Livestock Communications Intern

*Please note any templates or resources that can help you, can be found in a Google Drive folder, available to everyone.  Bookmark the site: https://z.umn.edu/NPIP for easy access.  If a resource is referenced in a post, it is linked directly to the Google Drive.


You will encounter wild birds, rodents, and insects on your farms. They can potentially be vectors for disease. Recognizing and addressing these vectors can help you prevent disease transmittance from affecting your flocks.  The NPIP Biosecurity audit requires that you provide documentation for the implementation and maintenance of your control plans.

What are your current control measures to prevent contact your production birds have with wild birds, their feces and feathers?

What are your current measures to control rodents, insects and other animals that may come on your premises?

In periods of heightened disease risk this principle is important to review and adjust your programs as necessary to further protect your flock.


Documenting implementation and all maintenance of your control programs is necessary and can help self-assess your current practices. These documents can also aid in identifying improvement opportunities or address related challenges that arise. Documentation may include:

  • log sheets
  • rodent control company contracts or service records
  • Best Management Practices (BMP) audits
  • maintenance records are all appropriate.

Principle #5 - Personnel

By Abby Neu
Extension Educator, Poultry
neux0012@umn.edu | (320) 235 - 0726 x 2019

and Hannah Lochner
Extension Livestock Communications Intern


*Please note any templates or resources that can help you, can be found in a Google Drive folder, available to everyone.  Bookmark the site: https://z.umn.edu/NPIP for easy access.  If a resource is referenced in a post, it is linked directly to the Google Drive.


Your biosecurity plan needs to include standard operating procedures (SOPs) you have in place for personal protective equipment ( PPE) for site-dedicated and non-farm personnel.  Keeping a roster of employees will help decipher who is considered site-dedicated and who falls into the non-farm personnel category. Include the types of PPE used on your farm(s) and by whom. Personal protective equipment (PPE) may include:
          • coveralls 
          • lab coats 
          • boots
          • safety goggles
          • respirators
          • disposable gloves


Designated areas should be used for putting on (donning) and taking off (duffing) PPE to prevent personnel from transferring pathogens to and from the farm site. Learn about 2-zone Danish entry or 3-zone Danish entry in these short videos.

In addition to having a biosecurity plan for each personnel group, special consideration should be taken for personnel that have recently been in contact with other poultry or avian species. These activities may include: 
  • hunting or having other contact with wild birds
  • interacting with backyard poultry
  • pet birds
Be sure to specify procedures for these individuals to complete prior to reentering the Perimeter Buffer Area to lessen risk of disease transfer.

To manage and organize protocol completion for personnel, keep a record of each individual through procedure audits, acknowledgement forms, training records, daily log-in for employees and visitors, or signed policy documents.

Friday, October 20, 2017

Principles #3 & #4: Line of Separation and Perimeter Buffer Area

By Abby Neu
Extension Educator, Poultry
neux0012@umn.edu | (320) 235 - 0726 x 2019

and Hannah Lochner
Extension Livestock Communications Intern


*Please note any templates or resources that can help you, can be found in a Google Drive folder, available to everyone.  Bookmark the site: https://z.umn.edu/NPIP for easy access.  If a resource is referenced in a post, it is linked directly to the Google Drive.


An established Line of Separation and Perimeter Buffer Area plays a significant role in reducing the amount of pathogens entering and leaving poultry premises.

The Line of Separation (LOS) is defined as a functional line separating poultry housing and the poultry inside, the clean side, from exterior or outside disease exposure, the dirty side. A common LOS are the walls of the poultry barn with deviations at the entry and exit sites.

The Perimeter Buffer Area (PBA) serves a similar purpose; however, it refers to a functional boundary surrounding the farm site that separates animal barns from areas unrelated to animal production. The poultry houses, raising areas, nearby structures, and high traffic areas related to daily functions should all be included in the Perimeter Buffer Area. Your house or equipment sheds may be outside of the PBA, since they are directly unrelated to poultry production occurring on the site.

Both of these biosecurity features need to be clearly described or illustrated in your biosecurity plan. An easy way to diagram the Line of Separation and Perimeter Buffer area on your farm is to outline an aerial image of your farm site.

This video will show you step-by-step how to do this using a computer which has an internet connection and Google maps. A full demonstration using a Windows computer starts at 2:32 and a MAC version is demonstrated starting at 5:57.

WINDOWS

Step 1. Using Google Maps, enter the address of your facility and click search

Step 2. Select “Satellite” view (bottom left of screen) to see aerial image of your site.

Use the plus (+) and minus (-) bars on the bottom right-hand side of your screen to zoom in and out to include the entire site and perimeter respectively.

Step 3. For Window’s open the “Snipping Tool” from your Start Menu,

select New, then drag your cursor over the aerial view of your farm.

Step 4. *Optional* Indicate where your Line(s) of Separation are as well as your Perimeter Buffer Area. If you do not do this on your computer, this needs to be completed by hand when you have a hard-copy of the aerial image. Selecting different colors or shading can further help distinguish these areas.

Step 5. Save a copy of your snip on your computer as a photo file. This can be a JPEG, JPG, PNG or other media file.

MAC

Step 1. Using Google Maps, enter the address of your facility and click search

Step 2. Select “Satellite” view (bottom left of screen) to see aerial image of your site.

Use the plus (+) and minus (-) bars on the bottom right-hand side of your screen to zoom in and out to include the entire site and perimeter respectively.

Step 3. Create the image by pressing Command + Shift + 4 simultaneously on their keyboards which opens the “screen shot” application. Drag your cursor over the aerial view of your farm to select the image

Step 4. *Optional* Indicate where your Line(s) of Separation are as well as your Perimeter Buffer Area. If you do not do this on your computer, this needs to be completed by hand when you have a hard-copy of the aerial image. Selecting different colors or shading can further help distinguish these areas.

Step 5. Save a copy of your snip on your computer as a photo file. This can be a JPEG, JPG, PNG or other media file.

Along with including a diagram of the Line of Separation and Perimeter Buffer Area on your farm, you should also have an outline of instructions for any individuals who will be entering and exiting either one these areas. Written manuals, training videos, signage, etc. are all appropriate tools to inform visitors, employees, and utility and service providers of the procedures taken into consideration when entering and exiting each area.

For assistance determining your procedures, watch these videos on the 2-zone Danish Entry or the 3-zone Danish Entry.  

Thursday, October 12, 2017

Principle #2 - Training

By Abby Neu
Extension Educator, Poultry
neux0012@umn.edu | (320) 235 - 0726 x 2019

and Hannah Lochner
Extension Livestock Communications Intern

*Please note any templates or resources that can help you, can be found in a Google Drive folder, available to everyone.  Bookmark the site: https://z.umn.edu/NPIP for easy access.  If a resource is referenced in a post, it is linked directly to the Google Drive.


Training is an essential component to an effective biosecurity plan. Developing and carrying out biosecurity training helps you protect your flocks from disease exposure from employees and visitors, but also vehicles and equipment. Understanding disease risks will help increase the probability of compliance by employees and visitors

Larger farms may have a person designated to complete this training for new employees. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the Biosecurity Coordinator to ensure this is done in order to maintain compliance with NPIP Biosecurity Principles.

Individuals that frequently enter the Perimeter Buffer Area, need to receive documented training once a year, at minimum. New employees are to be trained at hire with respective training documentation. You can document training in a variety of approaches including completion sheets, training logs, training completion certificates, or other equivalent record. All training records need to be retained for a minimum of 3 years. You can learn more about requirements for retaining records in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 9- CFR §145.12(b) (pg 894) and 146.11(e) (pg 950).

Your training materials should be easily accessible and cover site-specific as well as company or complex-wide specific procedures as necessary. These materials should indicate standard operating procedures for any individuals, vehicles, or equipment entering the Perimeter Buffer Area or Line of Separation.

Consider the protocol for individuals entering the Perimeter Buffer Area and crossing the Line of Separation.
  • Do they arrive showered with clean clothes and disinfected shoes? 
  • Do they need to wear barn or site-specific clothing that do not leave the premises? 
  • What is your protocol for on-site vehicles? And non-farm vehicles?
  • What disinfectant measures do you require for vehicles entering the Perimeter Buffer Area? 
  • Where do you require employees to park outside the Perimeter Buffer Area? 
Each SOP on your farm should be readily available and efficiently communicated to your employees, service or utility providers, transporters, and visitors.

Resources:

Employee Roster - to ensure all employees have completed necessary training

Training record - Individual

Training record - topic or subject

2-zone Danish Entry video

3-zone Danish Entry video

Characteristics of Disinfectants - a color-coded chart that explains advantages and disadvantages, and how they work best

Flow analysis fact sheet - an explanation of Line of Separation (LOS) and Perimeter Buffer Area (PBA) and how to go about determining what they should be on your farm
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