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Turkey Reoviral Arthritis/Tenosynovitis -Part 3

Rob Porter DVM, PhD, Sunil Mor, DVM, PhD, and Sagar Goyal, DVM, PhD
University of Minnesota

Is TARV a seasonal problem?  The 719 submissions from March 2010 to May 2018 consisted of a total of 926 samples of tendon. There was no statistical evidence that TARV diagnostic submissions were seasonal, although positive submissions were higher in January, April, July, and December.
How is TARV transmitted?  Our studies have demonstrated that inoculated poults can transmit the infection laterally to pen mates, likely through manure. It is generally believed that TARV can be egg transmitted from breeders to offspring although no study is available that has tackled this issue. However, egg transmission of chicken arthritis reovirus (CARV) has been well documented and has been effectively controlled by vaccination of broiler breeder flocks. Our industry partners have shown that, in some instances, intramuscular vaccination with autogenous, killed TARV can reduce onset of lameness in offspring,…
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2019 Winter Workshops for Backyard & Small Flock Poultry Production

UPDATED 3/4/19 University of Minnesota is holding a series of workshops around the state on Backyard & Small Flock Poultry Production. The audience is mainly for those who are new to poultry, but there is something in the workshop for experienced bird keepers as well.

Each location has a local contact person for pre-registration. The cost is: $10.00/person or $20.00/household (max 3)

Please pre-register so that we can plan for lunch. Call or send an email to the specified contact if you have questions.

Workshops will run 10 am - 3:30 pm, with the doors opening at 9:30
Topics to be covered:
Pest and predator controlAvian anatomy and physiologyDisease identification and responseOccasional issues:CannibalismCloacal prolapseBroken wing or legFrostbiteMoldy feedAscitesMy chicken won’t lay March 2, 2019 - Saint Cloud St. Cloud Regional Extension Office
3601 18th St. S, Suite 113
TO PRE-REGISTER: Emily Wilmes at (320) 255-6169 ext. 3 or
March 16, 2019 - St. Charles

Turkey Reoviral Arthritis/Tenosynovitis - Part 2

By Rob Porter DVM, PhD, Sunil Mor, DVM, PhD, and Sagar Goyal, DVM, PhD
University of Minnesota
This is the 2nd of a 4 part series.

Has the presentation of TARV remained the same? Grossly, most legs have periarticular fibrosis and edema without gastrocnemius tendon rupture; however, there is also edema of the shank accompanied by rupture or laxity of one or more of the digital flexor tendons (Figure 1). In the last two years a greater percentage of the TARV cases are complicated by bacterial infections e.g., Escherichia coli, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Pasteurella multocida and Staphylococcus aureus. In some of the hock joints, one might also observe marked erosion of the articular cartilage of the tibiotarsus (drumstick).
Figure 1. Sixteen-week-old tom turkey that was positive for reovirus infection. In some instances the lameness is associated with swelling of the shank with complete or partial rupture of one or more digital flexor tendons (arrow).
Characteristics of TARV The TA…

Turkey Reoviral Arthritis/Tenosynovitis

By Rob Porter DVM, PhD, Sunil Mor, DVM, PhD, and Sagar Goyal, DVM, PhD
University of Minnesota
This is the 1st article in a series of 4.
What is turkey arthritis reovirus and where did it come from? Avian reoviruses (ARVs) are RNA viruses that are ubiquitous in domestic poultry with 80% of them being non-pathogenic. However, ARVs have also been associated with enteritis, hepatitis, neurological disease, myocarditis, respiratory distress and viral arthritis/tenosynovitis in chickens and turkeys. Clinical disease associated with ARV is mostly dependent on age, and immune status of the bird, virus pathotype, and route of exposure (oral, intratracheal, footpad, or subcutaneous). Reovirus was isolated from joints and ruptured tendons of turkeys with tenosynovitis/arthritis as early as 1980; however, experimental infection of turkey reoviruses failed to reproduce the disease. After, a hiatus of >20 years, the problem of reovirus-associated lameness in turkeys re-emerged in the Midwestern …

Strain typing of pathogens: what is E. coli?

By Tim Johnson, Associate Professor at the University of Minnesota

Editor's note:  This is part 2 of a 3-part series written for Gobbles, the official publication of the Minnesota Turkey Growers Association. 

E. coli-associated diseases are perhaps the most recognized, yet least understood of all the bacterial diseases of turkeys. The disease is collectively referred to as colibacillosis, but includes many syndromes ranging from skin infections through systemic disease involving bloodstream infection. Most producers are very good at identifying birds impacted by E. coli. However, the underlying issues regarding how and why disease occurred are complex.
1. E. coli is mainly a secondary disease, but… It is true that the majority of birds impacted by E. coli disease are the result of some other primary insult (i.e., a viral pathogen, air quality issues, or other stress issues). However, not all E. coli are created equal. Most E. coli from turkeys are “commensal,” meaning they are not …

Enroll in online Backyard Chicken course at the U

Dr. Anup Johny will lead a online course titled, Backyard Chickens: Science and Practice during the spring 2019 semester.

Backyard Chickens - Science and Practice is an online course designed to meet the needs of students interested in understanding chickens in general, and for those who engage or are planning to engage in small scale farming of chickens. This course, expanded over 6 modules; (1) Basic biology and behavior (2) Selection (3) Housing (4) Nutrition (5) Management and (6) Diseases as it relates to chickens, will help the students understand the basic science of rearing chickens. Each of the six modules encompasses pertinent short video or PowerPoint lectures that provide fundamental and applied information on backyard chicken rearing. Students will also be introduced to public health, environmental and societal impacts of urban chicken raising.
This course is an undergraduate level course and will run January 22 - May 6, 2019. 
Dr. Johny invites anyone interested in thi…

Strain typing of pathogens: how do Salmonella emerge in poultry?

By Tim Johnson  Associate Professor at the University of Minnesota

Editor's note:  This is part 3 of a 3-part series written for Gobbles, the official publication of the Minnesota Turkey Growers Association.  It is being published here prior to printing of Gobbles because of the current events involving Salmonella in the poultry industries.
Salmonella is on everyone’s mind, with recent declared outbreaks by the CDC of Salmonella Reading in turkeys and Salmonella Infantis in chickens. It can be a bit perplexing for the producer to understand why the ecology of Salmonella changes so dramatically, when nothing has changed from a management perspective. In order to understand what might have changed, we first have to consider basic Salmonella ecology and how it impacts into our understanding of what has happened.
1. Salmonella can change very quickly through gene transfer. What is the fastest way for Salmonella populations to change? The answer lies in its genome. Salmonella, like E.…